WHO: Rotavirus vaccination should be included in all national immunization programs
GENEVA The World Health Organization on Friday recommended that rotavirus vaccination be included in all national immunization programs in order to provide protection against a virus that is responsible for more than 500,000 diarrheal deaths and 2 million hospitalizations annually among children.
“This is a tremendous milestone in ensuring that vaccines against the most common cause of lethal diarrhea reach the children who need them most,” stated Thomas Cherian, coordinator of the expanded program on inmunization, WHO Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals.
More than 85% of these deaths occur in developing countries in Africa and Asia, WHO stated. This new policy will help ensure access to rotavirus vaccines in the world’s poorest countries.
The new recommendation by the WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts, extends an earlier recommendation made in 2005 on vaccination in the Americas and Europe, where clinical trials had demonstrated safety and efficacy in low- and intermediate-mortality populations. New data from clinical trials which evaluated vaccine efficacy in countries with high child mortality has led to the recommendation for global use of the vaccine. This is reported in the Weekly Epidemiological Review published June 5.
The GAVI Alliance, vaccine manufacturers and the public health community made an unprecedented commitment to understand how these vaccines would work in developing-world conditions. The clinical trial, funded in part by GAVI and conducted by PATH, WHO, GlaxoSmithKline and research institutions in high-mortality, low-socioeconomic settings of South Africa and Malawi, found that rotavirus vaccine significantly reduced severe diarrhea episodes due to rotavirus.
In 2006, the GAVI Alliance added rotavirus vaccines to its portfolio of vaccines for which it provides financial support to developing countries, underscoring GAVI’s commitment to reduce the traditional 15- to 20-year lag between the introduction of new vaccines in wealthy countries and their availability in the developing world.
“The GAVI Alliance welcomes this exciting recommendation,” stated GAVI CEO Julian Lob-Levyt. “It represents another important step in our ability to achieve significant impact on under-five deaths in the world’s poorest communities and make progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. We are extremely excited about the potential to offer African and Asian countries funding to introduce rotavirus vaccines.”
Walgreens draws another line in sand, opting out of Delaware Medicaid fills
DEERFIELD, Ill. Pushing back against a plan by Delaware Medicaid administrators to slash pharmacy reimbursements, Walgreens warned state budget-cutters Thursday the chain would stop filling Medicaid prescriptions in all of its 66 Happy Harry’s locations enrolled in Delaware Medicaid as of July 6.
Walgreens’ dramatic announcement comes after state negotiators refused to consider a suite of alternatives proposed by the company and by the National Association of Chain Drug Stores, company officials said. And — as has been the case in some other states — Walgreens’ ultimatum thrusts the chain into a front-line position in community pharmacy’s ongoing battle to maintain adequate prescription reimbursement rates, as states hit hard by the recession and budgetary shortfalls scramble for ways to cut spending.
Walgreens is the state’s largest pharmacy provider since it entered Delaware via its acquisition of Happy Harry’s in 2006. Thus, its announcement is sure to galvanize opposition to the cuts among all community pharmacies in the state.
Thanks in large part to its clout as a multi-store pharmacy operator; Walgreens was instrumental in a successful campaign to halt plans to drastically cut Medicaid pharmacy reimbursements in the state of Washington earlier this spring. If that pattern holds, the chain’s move could lead policymakers in Delaware to reconsider similar cuts in that state.
Delaware’s Medicaid cuts come under a new Medicaid reimbursement rule that took effect April 1, and is due to become part of the state’s new fiscal budget beginning July 1. The new reimbursement model gives pharmacies in the state one of the lowest payment rates in the country for brand name and generic medications, according to Walgreens.
“Delaware is arbitrarily and unilaterally reducing the price it will pay for brand name medications. This will severely impact the ability of pharmacies to fill Medicaid prescriptions in the state,” the company stated Thursday.
Kermit Crawford, Walgreens’ SVP of pharmacy, explained the move. “We have made the decision, after much thought and care, to end our involvement with the state Medicaid program. Quite simply, we can’t continue to participate in a program that, in some cases, pays us less than our cost to fill these prescriptions.
“By making it uneconomical for pharmacies to continue filling Medicaid prescriptions, the state’s new payments to pharmacies hurt the very patients that Medicaid is meant to serve,” Crawford asserted.
The state “could easily eliminate its Medicaid pharmacy budget gap simply by focusing on its generic dispensing rate at all pharmacies in the state,” he added, since each percentage point improvement in the generic dispensing rate would save the state approximately $1.2 million annually.In addition, Crawford noted that Walgreens, in conjunction with NACDS, had approached the state “with a number of sound alternative strategies and programs that could help Delaware fill its Medicaid budget gap.
“Many of these alternatives were rejected, despite their successes in other states. None of these methods would adversely impact patient care, unlike the reimbursement cut.”
New study shows fatal effects of nicotine exposure during pregnancy may be curable
NEW YORK Researchers may have discovered a simple drug treatment to reverse the often otherwise terminal effects of nicotine exposure to an unborn child.
Based on data from a recent study on rates by researchers at McMaster University, nicotine exposure hinders a newborn’s ability to respond to low oxygen levels known as hypoxia.
Hypoxia can refer to episodes of apnea or moments of irregular breathing. When healthy babies are deprived of oxygen a hormone is released to trigger a deep breath. However, in infants subjected to nicotine during pregnancy this innate response is impaired and can result in sudden infant death syndrome.
The study, performed on rats, showed that the diabetic medication glibenclamide can increase the infant’s ability to react and respond to hypoxia, thus reversing the fatal effects of SIDS.
Data was published on June 3 in the Journal of Neuroscience.