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Latest CVS Health Research Institute study proclaims MTM value to hospitals
WOONSOCKET, R.I. – Hospital readmissions are reduced by as much as 50% thanks to retail pharmacy medication reconciliation programs, according to a new study released Thursday by the CVS Health Research Institute.
The research, published in the July issue of Health Affairs, is the first to evaluate the impact of an insurer-supported medication reconciliation program on clinical outcomes and health care spending.
"After leaving the hospital people are especially vulnerable and are often dealing with complex and changing care regimens, which can result in high rates of medication non-adherence and increased risk for costly and unnecessary readmissions," stated Troyen Brennan, EVP and chief medical officer, CVS Health. "In fact, adverse drug events, often attributable to medication non-adherence, are associated with the majority of hospital readmissions. This research shows that programs that provide patients with additional support from a pharmacist can help improve health outcomes and save payers and patients money."
The study analyzed hospital readmissions of more than 260 members of a national health plan who were hospitalized over a five-month period. Researchers compared readmission rates for patients enrolled in a medication reconciliation program upon hospital discharge to a control group of members who received no additional support following their initial hospital stay.
Those enrolled in the program received an initial in-home or telephonic consultation based on their readmission risk and were also offered ongoing telephonic support for the first 30 days following discharge. During the initial consultations, pharmacists compared members' pre- and post- hospitalization medication regimens; identified discrepancies, redundancies and safety concerns; and provided education and support regarding medication use and adherence.
The researchers found that risk of hospital readmission at 30 days was reduced by 50%, reducing overall risk of hospital readmission from 22% to 11% for those in the medication reconciliation program. Additionally, the health plan saved $2 for every $1 spent on the program, resulting in a total savings of more than $1,300 per member.
"The research found that the positive effects of the pharmacist consultation on reducing readmission rates and costs were similar whether the consultation was conducted via an in-home visit from a pharmacist or over the telephone when the intensity of the intervention was tailored to members' risk," Brennan said. "These results demonstrate that there is an opportunity for payers to consider adopting programs that provide pharmacist support and counseling by phone as a cost-efficient way to help improve medication adherence and health outcomes for their vulnerable populations."
An estimated one in seven patients discharged from a hospital is readmitted within 30 days, and readmissions are associated with more than $41 billion in additional health care costs per year. In addition, evidence suggests that approximately 66% of hospital readmissions are the result of adverse health events related to medication non-adherence.
Historically, health insurers have had little control over direct efforts to reduce hospital readmission rates for their members. When available, these kinds of programs are largely run by hospitals and outpatient providers and their impact has not been broadly evaluated.
The CVS Health Research Institute is focused on contributing to the body of scientific knowledge related to pharmacy and health care through research collaborations with external academic institutions, participation in federally-funded research, analysis and sharing of CVS Health data sources and coordination of pilot programs and initiatives. CVS Health Research Institute findings support a continuous quality improvement environment, which encourages product innovation and development to benefit CVS Health patients, clients and their members.
MinuteClinic adds new travel-related services and immunizations
WOONSOCKET, R.I. – With the Rio 2016 Olympic Games starting next month, MinuteClinic on Thursday announced the addition of several new travel-related services and immunizations to its offerings.
"Whether attending the upcoming 2016 Summer Games in Brazil, performing humanitarian service in a developing country, preparing for a semester abroad or simply enjoying a tropical beach vacation, international travelers should consider the health risks of the destination they are visiting and the preventive measures available to avoid harmful illness and disease," stated Angela Patterson, chief nurse practitioner, MinuteClinic. "Our new suite of travel-related health services assists families and individual travelers as they make plans for overseas trips."
Patients can now see a MinuteClinic nurse practitioner or physician assistant for a pre-travel risk assessment in advance of their trip and receive an individualized plan for prevention and treatment specific to the country they are visiting. Educational information is provided on health risks, disease outbreaks, recommended vaccines and preventive measures, including the latest updates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
In addition, MinuteClinic nurse practitioners can provide guidance on prescribed travel-specific medications, over-the-counter medications, first aid supplies, food and water guidance and even mosquito bite prevention, if applicable.
MinuteClinic's robust suite of travel health related services include:
- Typhoid Vaccination: About 22 million cases of typhoid worldwide are reported annually according to the CDC. Vaccinations, both oral and injected, now offered at MinuteClinic, reduce the risk of disease by 50% to 80%. Typhoid can cause lasting fevers, weakness, stomach pains, headaches and other symptoms and can lead to internal bleeding and death in rare instances. The vaccine is available to patients older than 24 months in most states;
- Malaria Prevention: Medications to prevent malaria infection, a potentially fatal disease transmitted by mosquito bites, are now available at MinuteClinic. Practitioners will prescribe the most effective medication based on an assessment of the overseas destination, season of travel, duration and the patient's access to medical care. Malaria occurs in many popular regions including Mexico and Central America, the Caribbean, Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe and the South Pacific;
- Hepatitis A Vaccination: Travelers can reduce their risk of contracting hepatitis A, a liver disease spread by contaminated food and water, through a series of two vaccinations issued six months apart at all MinuteClinic locations. According to the CDC, Hepatitis A is among the most common vaccine-preventable infections acquired during travel. In the United States the most frequently identified risk factor for hepatitis A is international travel;
- Motion Sickness Prevention: Nurse practitioners can provide customized treatment plans for patients, ages six and up, reporting a prior history of motion sickness. Treatment options include over-the-counter medication recommendations and prescriptions when appropriate. Motion sickness is most common among children, women and seniors; and
- Travelers' Diarrhea Prevention and Treatment: MinuteClinic practitioners can provide medical advice on over-the-counter options to pack in the event of illness and can also provide treatment upon a patient's return.
Many travel-related services at MinuteClinic, including pre-travel risk assessments and typhoid vaccinations, cannot be billed to insurance. Other services such as hepatitis A vaccinations and travelers' diarrhea treatment, may be covered based on the individual patient's insurance plan.