Study finds heart failure patients given different treatment based on gender
SOPHIA ANTIPOLIS, France While the treatment of heart failure has improved over the past two decades, a new study reported in the European Journal of Heart Failure finds that the use of evidence-based treatments appears to be imbalanced according to the gender of the patient.
In particular, the study found that female patients were less frequently treated with guideline-recommended medications, such as ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers or beta-blockers and that doses were lower in female than in male patients.
However, the patient’s gender was not the only influence on treatment; so was the gender of the physician. For example, the study demonstrated for the first time that drug treatment is more complete when female physicians are taking care of the patient. Thus, the use of ACE inhibitors or ARBs was significantly lower in female patients treated by a male physician than in male patients treated by either a female or male physician.
Similarly, the dose of ACE inhibitors and ARBs was highest in male patients treated by female physicians and was significantly different from the reverse combination (female patient, male physician). Dosage of beta-blockers was comparable in male patients irrespective of the physician’s gender, whereas female patients treated by a male physician received the lowest doses.
The investigators thus concluded that “male patients with chronic heart failure are more likely to receive evidence-based drug treatment than female [patients],” particularly for the prescription of ACE inhibitors and dosage of beta-blockers.
The study was an evaluation of 1,857 consecutive patients treated at centers in Germany; treatment records involving 829 physicians were analysed with regard to evidence-based drug treatments to improve survival. Assessment of dosages was calculated as a percentage of averages documented in treatment guidelines for heart failure.
George H. Bartell Jr. passes away at 92
SEATTLE George H. Bartell Jr., chairman emeritus of the nation’s oldest pharmacy retailer Bartell Drug Co., died on Jan. 21 in Scottsdale, Ariz., after a short illness. He was 92 years old.
Bartell Jr., the only son of the company’s founder, not only guided the chain through its initial suburban expansion and retail transformation following World War II, but proudly carried on the tradition of customer service and respect of employees after taking over the business from his father, George H. Bartell Sr.
“My father instilled in us what his own father had believed: respect your employees and treat your customers well,” stated George D. Bartell, Bartell Jr.’s son who continued the family tradition by becoming president in 1990 and later became and remains chairman and CEO.
The current third generation of Bartells running the 55-store chain includes vice chairman and treasurer, Jean Bartell Barber.
When Bartell Jr. was a youngster his father asked him if the company should be sold to a rival, out-of-state drug store chain for $1 million. Without hesitation, Bartell Jr. told his father no. His father agreed and today the company is the oldest family-owned drug store chain the United States with locations in King, Pierce and Snohomish counties of Washington.
In 1935, Bartell Jr. left the University of Washington after one year of study because a doctor had informed his father that he had only a few months to live. As it turned out, his father lived more than 20 years longer and actually outlived the doctor.
Bartell Jr., an avid hiker and ardent golfer, began at the bottom of his father’s business, moving boxes and filling warehouse orders as he learned the business. He continued his on-the-job training by working as a clerk and then an assistant store manager before being put in charge of purchasing and merchandising for the candy and tobacco departments. He later took charge of store design and was named president in 1939. In 1942, Bartell Jr., who grew up on Seattle’s Queen Anne Hill, was drafted into the U.S. Army and rose to the rank captain.
In 1951, a state law requiring drug store owners to be licensed pharmacists prompted him to enroll in the University of Washington after a 17-year absence and earn a degree in pharmacy. The law was later ruled unconstitutional, but at the time of its passage, it appeared that unless he returned to college to earn a degree in pharmacy, the company would have to be sold when his father died.
In the 1950s, Bartell Drugs became the first drug store located in a major regional shopping center—Seattle’s Northgate Mall. The company also began opening new locations in growing communities throughout King County, including Bellevue and Burien.
Aside from enjoying hobbies, Bartell Jr. also participated in a number of civic and philanthropic activities. These included The Municipal League, the Pacific Northwest Chapter of Young President’s Organization and The Retail Trade Bureau, all of which he headed at one point in time, as well as Boy Scouts and the Seattle Chamber of Commerce. He was a member of the Rainier Club, Scottish Rite Temple and the Chief Executive’s Forum. He was also a supporter of the University of Washington School of Pharmacy and Husky football.
He was preceded in death by his wife of 54 years, Elizabeth, who passed away in 2003. He is survived by his children, George D. Bartell, Jean Bartell Barber, Robert H. Bartell, and seven grandchildren.
Memorials may be addressed to the Chief Seattle Council of the Boy Scouts of America or The Salvation Army. A memorial service will be held at 10 a.m. on Feb. 5 at the University Presbyterian Church, 4540 15th Avenue NE in Seattle.
Study finds Kentucky has most smoking-related deaths
ATLANTA More people die from smoking-related illnesses in Kentucky than in any other state, with 371-in-100,000 deaths among adults aged 35 and older resulting from smoking, according to a study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The next nine states with the highest rates were West Virginia, Nevada, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Arkansas, Alabama, Indiana and Missouri. Utah had the lowest rate, with 138 out of every 100,000 deaths caused by smoking.
In addition to having the highest death rates from smoking, Kentucky and West Virginia also had the highest percentages of adults who smoked.